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Data Based Instruction in Early Writing (DBI)

Many students respond positively to research-based interventions that are implemented with fidelity -- according to methods demonstrated to be effective. Yet, a small number of students do not benefit sufficiently from these interventions. These students require more intensive instruction designed to meet their individual instructional needs. Data-Based Instruction (DBI) provides a framework for teachers to individualize instruction systematically and effectively. Researchers have demonstrated that, when teachers implement DBI with fidelity, their instructional decision-making improves, and student achievement increases.

Principal Investigators: Dr. Kristen McMaster, University of Minnesota ( and Dr. Erica Lembke, University of Missouri (

Learn more about DBI from University of Minnesota and University of Missouri

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DBI Beginning Writers Instructional Materials

Instructional materials including a diagnostic checklist and intervention mini-lessons. This manual serves as a companion to the Curriculum-Based Measurement and Decision-Making Manual. Within you will find materials to aid in selecting an intervention, intervention mini-lessons to address skill deficits, templates to merge mini lessons into an instructional plan, and fidelity tools to monitor intervention implementation.

DBI Beginning Writers Manual & Decision Making Tools

The purpose of this manual is to provide basic steps in the process of DBI in beginning writing. The manual is intended to be used in conjunction with high quality, research-based intervention strategies in beginning writing. The information contained in this manual can be used for training purposes, as a resource for schools or individual teachers, as a guide to assist problem-solving teams or Response to Intervention teams in their decision-making, and as a model for special educators to intensify instruction. We have solicited feedback from teachers, administrators, and experts in the field to not only create the manual, but also make it user friendly. We hope we have succeeded and wish you success as you use this manual!

DBI Early Writers Manual and Instructional Materials (Both Manuals)

DBI Beginning Writers Instructional Materials DBI Beginning Writers Manual & Decision Making Tools